Current trends and geographical differences in therapeutic profile and outcomes of COVID-19 among pregnant women - a systematic review and meta-analysis

Pallavi Dubey, Bhaskar Thakur, Sireesha Reddy, Carla A. Martinez, Md Nurunnabi, Sharron L. Manuel, Sadhana Chheda, Christina Bracamontes, Alok K. Dwivedi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Due to the lack of effective treatments for COVID-19, it becomes imperative to assess the geographical differences and trends in the current clinical care and outcomes of COVID-19 in pregnant women. Methods: A PubMed search was performed to screen articles reporting therapeutics and outcomes of confirmed COVID-19 in pregnant women prior to August 27, 2020. We performed searches, quality assessments of eligible studies, extracted and reported data according to PRISMA guidelines. Meta-analyses and cumulative meta-analyses of proportions were performed for estimating each outcome and their pattern over time respectively. Results: One thousand two hundred thirty nine pregnant women with COVID-19 from 66 studies were analyzed. In case series analysis reflecting average-risk patients, the proportion of oxygen support, antibiotics, antivirals, and plasma therapy administration except for hydroxychloroquine was substantially higher in Asian studies (55, 78, 80, 6, and 0%) compared to the US (7, 1, 12, 0, and 7%) or European (33, 12, 14, 1, and 26%) studies, respectively. The highest preterm birth and the average length of hospital stay (35%, 11.9 days) were estimated in Asian studies compared to the US studies (13%, 9.4 days) and European studies (29%, 7.3 days), respectively. Even in case reports reflecting severe cases, the use of antivirals and antibiotics was higher in Asian studies compared to the US, Latin American, and European studies. A significant decline in the use of most therapeutics along with adverse outcomes of COVID-19 in pregnant women was observed. Conclusions: Geographical differences in therapeutic practice of COVID-19 were observed with differential rates of maternal and clinical outcomes. Minimizing the use of some therapeutics particularly antibiotics, antivirals, oxygen therapy, immunosuppressants, and hydroxychloroquine by risk stratification and careful consideration may further improve maternal and clinical outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number247
JournalBMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Adverse pregnancy outcomes
  • Antibiotics
  • Antivirals
  • Cesarean section
  • Hydroxychloroquine
  • ICU admission
  • Maternal death
  • Mechanical ventilation
  • Meta-analysis
  • Preterm birth
  • Treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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