Correlates of daytime sleepiness in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder and sleep disturbance

Joseph Westermeyer, Imran Khawaja, Melesa Freerks, R. John Sutherland, Kay Engle, David Johnson, Paul Thuras, Rebecca Rossom, Thomas Hurwitz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Objective: To assess the correlates of daytime sleepiness in patients with a lifetime diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and ongoing sleep disturbance not due to sleep apnea or other diagnosed sleep disorders. Method: The sample consisted of 26 veterans receiving mental health care at the Minneapolis VA Medical Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale was the primary outcome measure. Other sleep-related instruments consisted of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Scale, a daily sleep log, and daily sleep actigraphy. In addition, data included 3 symptom ratings (Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist, Clinician Administered PTSD Scale [CAPS], and Beck Depression Inventory). Data were collected from 2003 to 2005. Current and lifetime PTSD diagnoses were based on DSM-IV criteria and were obtained by experienced psychiatrists using the CAPS interview. Results: Univariate analyses showed that daytime sleepiness on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale was associated with daytime dysfunction on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (P<.001), less use of sleeping medication (P=.02), and more self-rated posttraumatic symptoms (P=.05). Within posttraumatic symptom categories, hypervigilance symptoms were more correlated with daytime sleepiness (P=.03) than were reexperiencing and avoidance symptoms (P=.09 for both). Conclusion: In this selected sample, daytime sleepiness was most strongly and independently associated with daytime dysfunction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalPrimary Care Companion to the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2010

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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