Confirming the Clinical Safety and Feasibility of a Bundled Methodology to Improve Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Involving a Head-Up/Torso-Up Chest Compression Technique

Paul E. Pepe, Kenneth A. Scheppke, Peter M. Antevy, Remle P. Crowe, Daniel Millstone, Charles Coyle, Craig Prusansky, Sebastian Garay, Richard Ellis, Raymond L. Fowler, Johanna C. Moore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


Objectives: Combined with devices that enhance venous return out of the brain and into the thorax, preclinical outcomes are improved significantly using a synergistic bundled approach involving mild elevation of the head and chest during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The objective here was to confirm clinical safety/feasibility of this bundled approach including use of mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation provided at a head-up angle. Design: Quarterly tracking of the frequency of successful resuscitation before, during, and after the clinical introduction of a bundled head-up/torso-up cardiopulmonary resuscitation strategy. Setting: 9-1-1 response system for a culturally diverse, geographically expansive, populous jurisdiction. Patients: All 2,322 consecutive out-of-hospital cardiac arrest cases (all presenting cardiac rhythms) were followed over 3.5 years (January 1, 2014, to June 30, 2017). Interventions: In 2014, 9-1-1 crews used LUCAS (Physio-Control Corporation, Redmond, WA) mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation and impedance threshold devices for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. After April 2015, they also 1) applied oxygen but deferred positive pressure ventilation several minutes, 2) solidified a pit-crew approach for rapid LUCAS placement, and 3) subsequently placed the patient in a reverse Trendelenburg position (∼20°). Measurements and Main Results: No problems were observed with head-up/torso-up positioning (n = 1,489), but resuscitation rates rose significantly during the transition period (April to June 2015) with an ensuing sustained doubling of those rates over the next 2 years (mean, 34.22%; range, 29.76-39.42%; n = 1,356 vs 17.87%; range, 14.81-20.13%, for 806 patients treated prior to the transition; p < 0.0001). Outcomes improved across all subgroups. Response intervals, clinical presentations and indications for attempting resuscitation remained unchanged. Resuscitation rates in 2015-2017 remained proportional to neurologically intact survival (∼35-40%) wherever tracked. Conclusions: The head-up/torso-up cardiopulmonary resuscitation bundle was feasible and associated with an immediate, steady rise in resuscitation rates during implementation followed by a sustained doubling of the number of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients being resuscitated. These findings make a compelling case that this bundled technique will improve out-of-hospital cardiac arrest outcomes significantly in other clinical evaluations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)449-455
Number of pages7
JournalCritical care medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2019


  • cardiac arrest
  • cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  • emergency medical services
  • head-up CPR
  • impedance threshold device
  • sudden death

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine


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