Comprehensive phenotyping of depression disease trajectory and risk: Rationale and design of Texas Resilience Against Depression study (T-RAD)

Madhukar H. Trivedi, Cherise R. Chin Fatt, Manish K. Jha, Crystal M. Cooper, Joseph M. Trombello, Brittany L. Mason, Jennifer Hughes, Bharathi S. Gadad, Andrew H. Czysz, Russell T. Toll, Anne K. Fuller, Sangita Sethuram, Taryn L. Mayes, Abu Minhajuddin, Thomas Carmody, Tracy L. Greer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Depression has a chronic and recurrent course often with early onset and is the leading cause of disability worldwide. In contrast to diagnoses for other conditions which rely on precise medical tests, the diagnosis of depression still focuses exclusively on symptom reports. As a result, heterogeneous patient groups are included under broad categories. Furthermore, in the absence of companion diagnostic tests, choosing specific treatments for patients remains imprecise with only one-third of patients entering remission with initial treatment, with others requiring multiple intervention steps to achieve remission. In addition to improving treatment outcomes, disease prevention is essential to reduce overall disease burden. Adolescence is a critical window where complex emotional, social, familial, and biological shifts may predispose to lifelong depression. Thus, personalized medicine, integrating individual variability in genes, brain function, and clinical phenotypes, can offer a comprehensive approach to provide precise diagnosis, novel drug development, optimal treatment assignment, and prevention of illness and its associated burden. Texas Resilience Against Depression study (T-RAD) encompasses two natural history, longitudinal (10 + years), prospective studies (D2K and RAD), each enrolling 2500 participants. The D2K study follows participants (ages 10 years and older) who have a current or past diagnosis of depression or bipolar disorder. The RAD study follows participants aged 10–24 years who are at risk for depression but not yet suffering from the disease. The T-RAD study will help to uncover the socio-demographic, lifestyle, clinical, psychological, and neurobiological factors that contribute to mood disorder onset, recurrence, progression, and differential treatment response.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)22-32
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Psychiatric Research
StatePublished - Mar 2020


  • Biomarkers
  • Longitudinal assessment
  • Major depressive disorder
  • Naturalistic study
  • Resilience

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry


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