Compact biocompatible quantum dots via RAFT-mediated synthesis of imidazole-based random copolymer ligand

Wenhao Liu, Andrew B. Greytak, Jungmin Lee, Cliff R. Wong, Jongnam Park, Lisa F. Marshall, Wen Jiang, Peter N. Curtin, Alice Y. Ting, Daniel G. Nocera, Dai Fukumura, Rakesh K. Jain, Moungi G. Bawendi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

251 Scopus citations


We present a new class of polymeric ligands for quantum dot (QD) water solubilization to yield biocompatible and derivatizable QDs with compact size (̃10-12 nm diameter), high quantum yields (>50%), excellent stability across a large pH range (pH 5-10.5), and low nonspecific binding. To address the fundamental problem of thiol instability in traditional ligand exchange systems, the polymers here employ a stable multidentate imidazole binding motif to the QD surface. The polymers are synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer-mediated polymerization to produce molecular weight controlled monodisperse random copolymers from three types of monomers that feature imidazole groups for QD binding, polyethylene glycol (PEG) groups for water solubilization, and either primary amines or biotin groups for derivatization. The polymer architecture can be tuned by the monomer ratios to yield aqueous QDs with targeted surface functionalities. By incorporating amino-PEG monomers, we demonstrate covalent conjugation of a dye to form a highly efficient QD-dye energy transfer pair as well as covalent conjugation to streptavidin for high-affinity single molecule imaging of biotinylated receptors on live cells with minimal nonspecific binding. The small size and low serum binding of these polymer-coated QDs also allow us to demonstrate their utility for in vivo imaging of the tumor microenvironment in live mice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)472-483
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 20 2010
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • General Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Colloid and Surface Chemistry


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