The molecular underpinnings that drive the heterogeneity of KRAS-mutant lung adenocarcinoma are poorly characterized. We performed an integrative analysis of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data from early-stage and chemorefractory lung adenocarcinoma and identified three robust subsets of KRAS-mutant lung adenocarcinoma dominated, respectively, by co-occurring genetic events in STK11/LKB1 (the KL subgroup), TP53 (KP), and CDKN2A/B inactivation coupled with low expression of the NKX2-1 (TTF1) transcription factor (KC). We further revealed biologically and therapeutically relevant differences between the subgroups. KC tumors frequently exhibited mucinous histology and suppressed mTORC1 signaling. KL tumors had high rates of KEAP1 mutational inactivation and expressed lower levels of immune markers, including PD-L1. KP tumors demonstrated higher levels of somatic mutations, inflammatory markers, immune checkpoint effector molecules, and improved relapse-free survival. Differences in drug sensitivity patterns were also observed; notably, KL cells showed increased vulnerability to HSP90-inhibitor therapy. This work provides evidence that co-occurring genomic alterations identify subgroups of KRAS-mutant lung adenocarcinoma with distinct biology and therapeutic vulnerabilities.Significance: Co-occurring genetic alterations in STK11/LKB1, TP53, and CDKN2A/B-the latter coupled with low TTF1 expression-define three major subgroups of KRAS-mutant lung adenocarcinoma with distinct biology, patterns of immune-system engagement, and therapeutic vulnerabilities.
ASJC Scopus subject areas