Characterization of force and torque interactions during a simulated transgastric appendectomy procedure

Saurabh Dargar, Cecilia Brino, Kai Matthes, Ganesh Sankaranarayanan, Suvranu De

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


We have developed an instrumented endoscope grip handle equipped with a six-axis load cell and measured forces and torques during a simulated transgastric natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery appendectomy procedure performed in an EASIE-R ex vivo simulator. The data were collected from ten participating surgeons of varying degrees of expertise which was analyzed to compute a set of six force and torque parameters for each coordinate axis for each of the nine tasks of the appendectomy procedure. The mean push/pull force was found to be 3.64 N (σ = 3.54 N) in the push direction and the mean torque was 3.3 N · mm (σ = 38.6 N · mm) in the counterclockwise direction about the push/pull axis. Most interestingly, the force and torque data about the nondominant x and z axes showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) between the expert and novice groups for five of the nine tasks. These data may be useful in developing surgical platforms especially new haptic devices and simulation systems for emerging natural orifice procedures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6954427
Pages (from-to)890-899
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Haptic interface
  • human factors
  • surgery
  • virtual reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering


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