Characteristics of patients who avoid wheat and/or gluten in the absence of celiac disease

Anna Tavakkoli, Suzanne K. Lewis, Christina A. Tennyson, Benjamin Lebwohl, Peter H.R. Green

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Scopus citations


Background: Gastrointestinal symptoms that respond to the removal of wheat and/or gluten are becoming more common. Patients who avoid wheat and/or gluten (PWAWG) are a heterogeneous group and predominantly self-diagnosed prior to presenting for clinical evaluation. Specific aim: We characterized PWAWGs seen at a tertiary care referral center and compared them to patients with celiac disease (CD) and subjects in the National Health and Nutrition examination survey (NHANES). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study evaluating patients seen by four gastroenterologists at a CD referral center. Baseline characteristics, laboratory values, and medical comorbidities were compared to CD patients who presented at the same center and subjects enrolled in NHANES. Results: Eighty-four PWAWGs were identified and compared to 585 CD patients and 2,686 NHANES patients. Thirty-two alternative diagnoses were made in 25 (30 %) PWAWGs, including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and fructose/lactose intolerance. When compared to patients with CD, PWAWGs had similar body mass index (BMI, 23.1 vs. 23.5, p = 0.54) and mean hemoglobin value (13.4 vs. 13.3, p = 0.6). When compared to male and female patients in NHANES, BMI, folate, and mean hemoglobin values were lower in PWAWGs. Both male and female PWAWGs had a lower prevalence of hypertension. Conclusion: While there are similarities between CD and PWAWGs that could possibly be due to shared HLA haplotypes or an effect of the gluten-free diet, alternative diagnoses are common in these patients. PWAWGs have a similar cardiovascular profile as CD patients in terms of lower BMI and lower prevalence of hypertension.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1255-1261
Number of pages7
JournalDigestive Diseases and Sciences
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Alternative diagnoses
  • Celiac disease
  • Gluten-free diet
  • Patients who avoid wheat and/or gluten

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Gastroenterology


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