Balanitis xerotica obliterans in boys

Patricio C. Gargollo, Harry P. Kozakewich, Stuart B. Bauer, Joseph G. Borer, Craig A Peters, Alan B. Retik, David A. Diamond

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

87 Scopus citations


Purpose: Balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) is a chronic dermatitis of unknown etiology most often involving the glans and prepuce but sometimes extending into the urethra. We report our 10-year experience with BXO in pediatric patients. Materials and Methods: Our pathology database was queried for all tissue diagnoses of BXO from 1992 to 2002. Available charts were reviewed and patient presentation, clinical and referral history, operative procedure(s) and postoperative course were recorded. Results: A total of 41 patients had a tissue confirmed diagnosis of BXO. Median patient age was 10.6 years. Of the patients 85% were 8 to 13 years old and all had referrals available for review. The most common referral diagnoses were phimosis (52%), balanitis (13%) and buried penis (10%). No patient had the diagnosis of BXO at referral. Of the patients 19 (46%) underwent curative circumcision or redo circumcision and had no recurrence at a mean followup of 12.5 months (range 1 to 57). A total of 11 patients (27%) had BXO involvement of the meatus and underwent circumcision combined with meatotomy or meatoplasty. Nine patients (22%) required extensive plastic operation(s) of the penis, including buccal mucosa grafts in 2. Conclusions: The incidence of BXO in pediatric patients may be higher than previously reported, with the diagnosis rarely made by pediatricians. Our study demonstrates that older patients, those with BXO involvement of the meatus and those with a history of surgery for BXO tend to have a more severe and morbid clinical course.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1409-1412
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Urology
Issue number4 I
StatePublished - Oct 2005


  • Balanitis
  • Circumcision
  • Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus
  • Pediatrics
  • Urology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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