Automated sleep stage scoring employing a reasoning mechanism and evaluation of its explainability

Kazumasa Horie, Leo Ota, Ryusuke Miyamoto, Takashi Abe, Yoko Suzuki, Fusae Kawana, Toshio Kokubo, Masashi Yanagisawa, Hiroyuki Kitagawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Scoring sleep stages from biological signals is an essential but labor-intensive inspection for sleep diagnosis. The existing automated scoring methods have achieved high accuracy but are not widely applied in clinical practice. In our understanding, the existing methods have failed to establish the trust of sleep experts (e.g., physicians and clinical technologists) due to a lack of ability to explain the evidences/clues for scoring. In this study, we developed a deep-learning-based scoring model with a reasoning mechanism called class activation mapping (CAM) to solve this problem. This mechanism explicitly shows which portions of the signals support our model’s sleep stage decision, and we verified that these portions overlap with the “characteristic waves,” which are evidences/clues used in the manual scoring process. In exchange for the acquisition of explainability, employing CAM makes it difficult to follow some scoring rules. Although we concerned the negative effect of CAM on the scoring accuracy, we have found that the impact is limited. The evaluation experiment shows that the proposed model achieved a scoring accuracy of 86.9 %. It is superior to those of some existing methods and the inter-rater reliability among the sleep experts. These results suggest that Sleep-CAM achieved both explainability and required scoring accuracy for practical usage.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number12799
JournalScientific reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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