Antigen-specific bacterial vaccine combined with anti-PD-L1 rescues dysfunctional endogenous T cells to reject long-established cancer

David C. Binder, Boris Engels, Ainhoa Arina, Ping Yu, James M. Slauch, Yang Xin Fu, Theodore Karrison, Byron Burnette, Christian Idel, Ming Zhao, Robert M. Hoffman, David H. Munn, Donald A. Rowley, Hans Schreiber

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

58 Scopus citations


Immunogenic tumors grow progressively even when heavily infiltrated by CD8(+) T cells. We investigated how to rescue CD8(+) T cell function in long-established immunogenic melanomas that contained a high percentage of endogenous PD-1(+) tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells that were dysfunctional. Treatment with αPD-L1 and αCTLA-4 blocking antibodies did not prevent tumors from progressing rapidly. We then tested exogenous tumor-specific antigen delivery into tumors using Salmonella Typhimurium A1-R to increase antigen levels and generate a proinflammatory tumor microenvironment. Antigen-producing A1-R rescued the endogenous tumor-specific CD8(+) T cell response: proliferation was induced in the lymphoid organs and effector function was recovered in the tumor. Treatment with antigen-producing A1-R led to improved mouse survival and resulted in 32% rejection of long-established immunogenic melanomas. Following treatment with antigen-producing A1-R, the majority of tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells still expressed a high level of PD-1 in the tumor. Combining antigen-producing A1-R with αPD-L1 blocking antibody enhanced the expansion of tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells and resulted in 80% tumor rejection. Collectively, these data demonstrate a powerful new therapeutic approach to rescue dysfunctional endogenous tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells and eradicate advanced immunogenic tumors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)123-133
Number of pages11
JournalCancer Immunology Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 1 2013


  • CD8+ T cell rescue
  • PD-L1
  • S. Typhimurium
  • Tumor rejection
  • vaccine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Antigen-specific bacterial vaccine combined with anti-PD-L1 rescues dysfunctional endogenous T cells to reject long-established cancer'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this