An evaluation of gating window size, delivery method, and composite field dosimetry of respiratory-gated IMRT

Geoffrey D. Hugo, Nzhde Agazaryan, Timothy D. Solberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

69 Scopus citations


A respiratory gating system has been developed based on a commercial patient positioning system. The purpose of this study is to investigate the ability of the gating system to reproduce normal, nongated IMRT operation and to quantify the errors produced by delivering a nongated IMRT treatment onto a moving target. A moving phantom capable of simultaneous two-dimensional motion was built, and an analytical liver motion function was used to drive the phantom. Studies were performed to assess the effect of gating window size and choice of delivery method (segmented and dynamic multileaf collimation). Additionally, two multiple field IMRT cases were delivered to quantify the error in gated and nongated IMRT with motion. Dosimetric error between nonmoving and moving deliveries is related to gating window size. By reducing the window size, the error can be reduced. Delivery error can be reduced for both dynamic and segmented delivery with gating. For the implementation of dynamic IMRT delivery in this study, dynamic delivery was found to generate larger delivery errors than segmented delivery in most cases studied. For multiple field IMRT delivery, the largest errors were generated in regions where high field modulation was present parallel to the axis of motion. Gating was found to reduce these large errors to clinically acceptable levels.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2517-2525
Number of pages9
JournalMedical physics
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1 2002


  • Gated dosimetry
  • IMRT
  • Intensity modulated radiotherapy
  • Radiotherapy
  • Respiratory gating

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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