Alternatives to the draize Eye test including the use of tissue cultured corneal cells

James P McCulley, Thomas J. Stephens

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


In recent years there have been major efforts to develop alternative procedures to the Draize eye test. Just as adjustments have been made to improve the usefulness of the Draize eye test, similar trends are being observed with alternative test procedures. In vitro test methods appear to be useful either as a screening tool before continuing to animal and human testing or as a mechanistic model to better define the nature of the ocular injury. Progress has been made in identifying in vitro tests to replace the Draize eye test; however, a universally accepted test or battery of tests has yet to be identified. Most likely, the test battery will consist of test(s) that will predict cytotoxicity, non-cytotoxicity-induced inflammation, and, possibly, effects on nutrition and metabolism of cells. Problems related to in vitro testing, such as non-water-soluble preparations in tissue culture, must also be addressed. It is anticipated that with continued research, it will be possible to develop a battery of endpoints or tests that will allow testing in animals of only those substances that are thought to be nontoxic. It is highly probable that only mechanistically based systems will receive regulatory acceptance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)26-40
Number of pages15
JournalToxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1994


  • Draize eye test
  • In vitro tests

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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