Allele-specific loss in chromosome 9p loci in preneoplastic lesions accompanying non-small-cell lung cancers

Yosuke Kishimoto, Kenji Sugio, Jaclyn Y. Hung, Arvind K. Virmani, Donald D. Mclntire, John D. Minna, Adi F. Gazdar

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Background: Carcinogenesis is a multistep process, which may begin as a consequence of chromosomal changes. Deletions in the short arm of chromosome 9 (9p) have been observed in lung carcinomas. In addition, morphologically recognizable preneoplastic lesions, frequently multiple in number, precede onset of invasive carcinomas. Purpose: We tested for deletions and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at 9p loci in preneoplastic and neoplastic foci in lungs of patients with non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs). Methods: Seven archival, paraffin-embedded, surgically resected NSCLC specimens were selected. They were predominantly from patients with adenocarcinomas and contained multiple preneoplastic lesions, including hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma in situ (CIS). Fifty-three histologi-cally identified preneoplastic and malignant lesions present in bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli were precisely microdis-sected from stained tissue sections with a micromanipulator. Stromal lymphocytes were used to determine constitutional heterozygosity. The specimens were analyzed for LOH using polymerase chain reaction-based assays for polymorphism in dinucleotide repeats (microsatellite markers) in interferon alfa (IFNA) and D9S171 loci on 9p. Results: All seven cases were constitutionally heterozygous for one or both microsatellite markers. Five of seven cases had LOH at one or both 9p loci in the invasive primary cancers (doubly informative cases). Four of these five cases also revealed LOH in preneoplastic foci. In the doubly informative cases, LOH was detected in five (38%) of 13 foci of hyperplasia, four (80%) of five foci of dysplasia, and three (100%) of three CIS lesions. LOH was detected in preneoplastic lesions from all regions of the respiratory tract, including bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli, and involved five different cell types. The identical allele was lost from both the preneoplastic lesions and the corresponding tumors (12 of 12 lesions, 17 of 17 comparisons), a phenomenon we have referred to as "allele-specific mutation." Statistical analyses employing a cumulative binomial test demonstrated that the probabilities of such findings occurring by chance are 2.4 × 10-4 and 7.6 × 10-6, respectively. From comparisons with the previously published data on other chromosomal abnormalities in the same tissue specimens, it appears that LOH at 3p and 9p loci occurred early in the hyperplasia stage, but the ras gene point mutations were relatively late, at the CIS stage. Conclusions: LOH at 9p loci occurs at the earliest stage in the pathogenesis of lung cancer and involves all regions of the respiratory tract. LOH in NSCLC is not random but targets a specific allele in individuals. Studying preneoplastic lesions may help identify intermediate markers for risk assessment and chemoprevention. [J Natl Cancer Inst 87: 1224-1229, 1995]

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1224-1229
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of the National Cancer Institute
Issue number16
StatePublished - Aug 16 1995

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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