Advancing the Education of Stop the Bleed: Development of a Perfused Synthetic Cadaver Model

Aakanksha Gupta, Cassandra V. Villegas, Jay Rosenberg, Robert J. Winchell, Philip S. Barie, M. Narayan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Background: As active shootings and mass casualty incidents have become more prevalent, courses designed to teach basic hemorrhage control to laypersons have proliferated. Participants currently undergo Stop the Bleed (StB) training currently use a synthetic limb mannequin. In a prior survey of 88 participants, there was overwhelming sentiment that the mannequin was limited by its inability to demonstrate cessation of bleeding when hemorrhage control techniques were applied. We hypothesized that simulated bleeding that can be controlled by StB techniques would improve the mannequin and increase confidence of trainees in achieving bleeding control. Methods: The mannequin was redesigned to be a self-contained model mimicking bleeding, with fluid flowing from a reservoir into a latex tubing with a laceration mimicking an arterial wound. Fluid was pumped by a rubber bulb attached to the tubing and held in the instructor's hand. Twenty StB trainers conducted beta testing of the perfused mannequin. Forty participants underwent training with both old and new models and completed posttraining surveys. Results: Beta-testers reported positive feedback regarding both realism of the perfused mannequin and participants' ability to obtain bleeding control using StB techniques. Participants who trialed the mannequin reported increased awareness of the rate of blood flow out of a wound, which in turn increased their sense of urgency to achieve hemostasis. Conclusions: In an effort to address shortcomings noted by participants in the current StB mannequin, we developed a novel perfused bleeding mannequin, which responds appropriately to various hemorrhage cessation techniques and is both high fidelity and low cost.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)516-520
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Surgical Research
StatePublished - Dec 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Education
  • Experiential learning
  • Hemorrhage control
  • Model
  • Stop the Bleed

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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