ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Infective Endocarditis

Expert Panel on Cardiac Imaging:

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Infective endocarditis can involve a normal, abnormal, or prosthetic cardiac valve. The diagnosis is typically made clinically with persistently positive blood cultures, characteristic signs and symptoms, and echocardiographic evidence of valvular vegetations or valvular complications such as abscess, dehiscence, or new regurgitation. Imaging plays an important role in the initial diagnosis of infective endocarditis, identifying complications, prognostication, and informing the next steps in therapy. This document outlines the initial imaging appropriateness of a patient with suspected infective endocarditis and for additional imaging in a patient with known or suspected infective endocarditis. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S52-S61
JournalJournal of the American College of Radiology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2021


  • AUC
  • Appropriate Use Criteria
  • Appropriateness Criteria
  • Infective endocarditis
  • Native valve endocarditis
  • Paravalvular abscess
  • Prosthetic valve endocarditis
  • Valvular dehiscence
  • Valvular vegetation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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