Accurate respiration measurement using DC-coupled continuous-wave radar sensor for motion-adaptive cancer radiotherapy

Changzhan Gu, Ruijiang Li, Hualiang Zhang, Albert Y C Fung, Carlos Torres, Steve B. Jiang, Changzhi Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

131 Scopus citations


Accurate respiration measurement is crucial in motion-adaptive cancer radiotherapy. Conventional methods for respiration measurement are undesirable because they are either invasive to the patient or do not have sufficient accuracy. In addition, measurement of external respiration signal based on conventional approaches requires close patient contact to the physical device which often causes patient discomfort and undesirable motion during radiation dose delivery. In this paper, a dc-coupled continuous-wave radar sensor was presented to provide a noncontact and noninvasive approach for respiration measurement. The radar sensor was designed with dc-coupled adaptive tuning architectures that include RF coarse-tuning and baseband fine-tuning, which allows the radar sensor to precisely measure movement with stationary moment and always work with the maximum dynamic range. The accuracy of respiration measurement with the proposed radar sensor was experimentally evaluated using a physical phantom, human subject, and moving plate in a radiotherapy environment. It was shown that respiration measurement with radar sensor while the radiation beam is on is feasible and the measurement has a submillimeter accuracy when compared with a commercial respiration monitoring system which requires patient contact. The proposed radar sensor provides accurate, noninvasive, and noncontact respiration measurement and therefore has a great potential in motion-adaptive radiotherapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6228520
Pages (from-to)3117-3123
Number of pages7
JournalIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Issue number12 PART2
StatePublished - 2012


  • Cancer radiotherapy
  • dc information
  • dc offset
  • moving tumor
  • radar
  • respiration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering


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