A system for rapid prototyping of hearts with congenital malformations based on the Medical Imaging Interaction Toolkit (MITK)

Ivo Wolf, Thomas Böttger, Urte Rietdorf, Daniel Maleike, Gerald Greil, Ludger Sieverding, Stephan Miller, Sibylle Mottl-Link, Hans Peter Meinzer

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

3 Scopus citations


Precise knowledge of the individual cardiac anatomy is essential for diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart disease. Complex malformations of the heart can best be comprehended not from images but from anatomic specimens. Physical models can be created from data using rapid prototyping techniques, e.g., lasersintering or 3D-printing. We have developed a system for obtaining data that show the relevant cardiac anatomy from high-resolution CT/MR images and are suitable for rapid prototyping. The challenge is to preserve all relevant details unaltered in the produced models. The main anatomical structures of interest are the four heart cavities (atria, ventricles), the valves and the septum separating the cavities, and the great vessels. These can be shown either by reproducing the morphology itself or by producing a model of the blood-pool, thus creating a negative of the morphology. Algorithmically the key issue is segmentation. Practically, possibilities allowing the cardiologist or cardiac surgeon to interactively check and correct the segmentation are even more important due to the complex, irregular anatomy and imaging artefacts. The paper presents the algorithmic and interactive processing steps implemented in the system, which is based on the open-source Medical Imaging Interaction Toolkit (MITK, www.mitk.org). It is shown how the principles used in MITK enable to assemble the system from modules (functionalities) developed independently from each other. The system allows to produce models of the heart (and other anatomic structures) of individual patients as well as to reproduce unique specimens from pathology collections for teaching purposes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMedical Imaging 2006
Subtitle of host publicationVisualization, Image-Guided Procedures, and Display
StatePublished - 2006
EventMedical Imaging 2006: Visualization, Image-Guided Procedures, and Display - San Diego, CA, United States
Duration: Feb 12 2006Feb 14 2006

Publication series

NameProgress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE
ISSN (Print)1605-7422


OtherMedical Imaging 2006: Visualization, Image-Guided Procedures, and Display
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Diego, CA


  • Congenital heart disease
  • ITK
  • MITK
  • Rapid prototyping
  • VTK

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biomaterials
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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