A primer on effectiveness and efficacy trials

Amit G. Singal, Peter D R Higgins, Akbar K. Waljee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

417 Scopus citations


Although efficacy and effectiveness studies are both important when evaluating interventions, they serve distinct purposes and have different study designs. Unfortunately, the distinction between these two types of trials is often poorly understood. In this primer, we highlight several differences between these two types of trials including study design, patient populations, intervention design, data analysis, and result reporting.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere45
JournalClinical and translational gastroenterology
StatePublished - Jan 2 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology


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