A novel strategy for continuation ECT in geriatric depression: Phase 2 of the PRIDE study

Charles H. Kellner, Mustafa M. Husain, Rebecca G. Knapp, W. Vaughn McCall, Georgios Petrides, Matthew V. Rudorfer, Robert C. Young, Shirlene Sampson, Shawn M. McClintock, Martina Mueller, Joan Prudic, Robert M. Greenberg, Richard D. Weiner, Samuel H. Bailine, Peter B. Rosenquist, Ahmad Raza, Styliani Kaliora, Vassilios Latoussakis, Kristen G. Tobias, Mimi C. BriggsLauren S. Liebman, Emma T. Geduldig, Abeba A. Teklehaimanot, Sarah H. Lisanby

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

143 Scopus citations


Objective:Therandomized phase (phase 2) of the Prolonging Remission in Depressed Elderly (PRIDE) study evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of continuation ECT plus medication compared with medication alone in depressed geriatric patients after a successful course of ECT (phase 1). Method: PRIDE was a two-phase multisite study. Phase 1 was an acute course of right unilateral ultrabrief pulse ECT, augmented with venlafaxine. Phase 2 compared two randomized treatment arms: A medication only arm (venlafaxine plus lithium, over 24 weeks) and an ECT plus medication arm(four continuationECTtreatmentsover1month, plusadditionalECT as needed, using the Symptom-Titrated, Algorithm-Based Longitudinal ECT [STABLE] algorithm, while continuing venlafaxine plus lithium). The intent-To-Treat sample comprised 120 remitters from phase 1. The primary efficacy outcome measure was score on the 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), and the secondary efficacy outcome was score on the Clinical Global Impressions severity scale (CGI-S). Tolerability as measured by neurocognitive performance (reported elsewhere) was assessed using an extensive test battery; global cognitive functioning as assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is reported here. Longitudinal mixed-effects repeated-measures modeling was used to compare ECT plus medication and medication alone for efficacy and global cognitive function outcomes. Results: At 24 weeks, the ECT plus medication group had statistically significantly lower HAM-D scores than the medication only group. The difference in adjustedmean HAM-D scores at study end was 4.2 (95% CI=1.6, 6.9). Significantly more patients in the ECT plus medication group were rated "not ill at all" on the CGI-S compared with the medication only group. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in MMSE score. Conclusions: Additional ECT after remission (here operationalized as four continuation ECT treatments followed by furtherECTonly as needed)wasbeneficial in sustainingmood improvement for most patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1110-1118
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Psychiatry
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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