A Multi-Omics Approach Reveals Features That Permit Robust and Widespread Regulation of IFN-Inducible Antiviral Effectors

Loránd Göczi, Mária Csumita, Attila Horváth, Gergely Nagy, Szilárd Póliska, Matteo Pigni, Christoph Thelemann, Bence Dániel, Hamidreza Mianesaz, Tamás Varga, Kaushik Sen, Sunil K. Raghav, John W. Schoggins, Laszlo Nagy, Hans Acha-Orbea, Felix Meissner, Walter Reith, Lajos Széles

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The antiviral state, an initial line of defense against viral infection, is established by a set of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) encoding antiviral effector proteins. The effector ISGs are transcriptionally regulated by type I IFNs mainly via activation of IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3). In this study, the regulatory elements of effector ISGs were characterized to determine the (epi)genetic features that enable their robust induction by type I IFNs in multiple cell types. We determined the location of regulatory elements, the DNA motifs, the occupancy of ISGF3 subunits (IRF9, STAT1, and STAT2) and other transcription factors, and the chromatin accessibility of 37 effector ISGs in murine dendritic cells. The IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) and its tripartite version occurred most frequently in the regulatory elements of effector ISGs than in any other tested ISG subsets. Chromatin accessibility at their promoter regions was similar to most other ISGs but higher than at the promoters of inflammation-related cytokines, which were used as a reference gene set. Most effector ISGs (81.1%) had at least one ISGF3 binding region proximal to the transcription start site (TSS), and only a subset of effector ISGs (24.3%) was associated with three or more ISGF3 binding regions. The IRF9 signals were typically higher, and ISRE motifs were “stronger” (more similar to the canonical sequence) in TSS-proximal versus TSS-distal regulatory regions. Moreover, most TSS-proximal regulatory regions were accessible before stimulation in multiple cell types. Our results indicate that “strong” ISRE motifs and universally accessible promoter regions that permit robust, widespread induction are characteristic features of effector ISGs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1930-1941
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Immunology
Issue number10
StatePublished - Nov 15 2022
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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