A meta-analysis of malingering detection measures for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Elizabeth R. Wallace, Natasha E. Garcia-Willingham, Brittany D. Walls, Chelsea M. Bosch, Kullen C. Balthrop, David T.R. Berry

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


This meta-analysis compares stand-alone and embedded performance and symptom validity tests (PVTs and SVTs) for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) malingering detection in college students. Simulation design studies utilizing college student samples were included (k = 11). Analyses consisted of measures designed or previously used for malingering detection. Random-effects models were constructed to provide aggregated weighted effect sizes (Hedges' g), indicating the difference between genuine ADHD and simulation groups. Overall PVTs (stand-alone and embedded) produced a large effect size (g = 0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI; 0.72, 1.13], p <.001), whereas overall SVTs (stand-alone and embedded) produced a medium-effect size (g = 0.54, 95% CI [0.44, 0.65], p <.001). Stand-alone PVTs (g = 0.98, 95% CI [0.84, 1.12], p <.001) outperformed embedded PVTs (g = 0.66, 95% CI [0.51, 0.80], p <.001). The stand-alone SVT (g = 0.66) and embedded SVTs (g = 0.54, 95% CI [0.43, 0.65], p <.001) produced medium-effect sizes. These findings support stand-alone PVTs and suggest that performance-based measures should be included in ADHD evaluation batteries, which may consist solely of symptom self-report measures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)265-270
Number of pages6
JournalPsychological Assessment
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
  • college student
  • malinger
  • performance validity
  • symptom validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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