A low-complexity 2-point step size gradient projection method with selective function evaluations for smoothed total variation based CBCT reconstructions

Bongyong Song, Justin C. Park, William Y. Song

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


The Barzilai-Borwein (BB) 2-point step size gradient method is receiving attention for accelerating Total Variation (TV) based CBCT reconstructions. In order to become truly viable for clinical applications, however, its convergence property needs to be properly addressed. We propose a novel fast converging gradient projection BB method that requires 'at most one function evaluation' in each iterative step. This Selective Function Evaluation method, referred to as GPBB-SFE in this paper, exhibits the desired convergence property when it is combined with a 'smoothed TV' or any other differentiable prior. This way, the proposed GPBB-SFE algorithm offers fast and guaranteed convergence to the desired 3DCBCT image with minimal computational complexity. We first applied this algorithm to a Shepp-Logan numerical phantom. We then applied to a CatPhan 600 physical phantom (The Phantom Laboratory, Salem, NY) and a clinically-treated head-and-neck patient, both acquired from the TrueBeam™ system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). Furthermore, we accelerated the reconstruction by implementing the algorithm on NVIDIA GTX 480 GPU card. We first compared GPBB-SFE with three recently proposed BB-based CBCT reconstruction methods available in the literature using Shepp-Logan numerical phantom with 40 projections. It is found that GPBB-SFE shows either faster convergence speed/time or superior convergence property compared to existing BB-based algorithms. With the CatPhan 600 physical phantom, the GPBB-SFE algorithm requires only 3 function evaluations in 30 iterations and reconstructs the standard, 364-projection FDK reconstruction quality image using only 60 projections. We then applied the algorithm to a clinically-treated head-and-neck patient. It was observed that the GPBB-SFE algorithm requires only 18 function evaluations in 30 iterations. Compared with the FDK algorithm with 364 projections, the GPBB-SFE algorithm produces visibly equivalent quality CBCT image for the head-and-neck patient with only 180 projections, in 131.7 s, further supporting its clinical applicability.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6565
Pages (from-to)6565-6582
Number of pages18
JournalPhysics in medicine and biology
Issue number21
StatePublished - Nov 7 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • CBCT
  • IGRT
  • compressive sensing
  • iterative reconstruction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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