Virtual CT cystoscopy: Color mapping of bladder wall thickness

Andreas G. Schreyer, Julia R. Fielding, Simon K. Warfield, Jhemon H. Lee, Kevin R. Loughlin, Huseyin Dumanli, Ferenc A. Jolesz, Ron Kikinis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

43 Scopus citations


RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES. To improve the conspicuity of bladder tumors in a virtual environment, we developed an algorithm for color mapping the thickness of the bladder wall. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of this algorithm as a component of virtual CT cystoscopy. METHODS. Five subjects with a history of superficial transitional-cell carcinoma of the bladder underwent helical CT scanning after insufflation of the bladder with air. Source images were transformed into three-dimensional models, and the thickness of the bladder wall was demarcated by using a new computer algorithm and a fixed color scale. Results were compared with those obtained by conventional cystoscopy. RESULTS. Three tumors, one site of benign wall thickening, and normal wall thickness were correctly identified by using axial source images and virtual cystoscopy with color mapping. CONCLUSIONS. Color mapping of bladder wall thickness is feasible and demonstrates both normal and thickened urothelium. Its value in identification of small or sessile minors will require further trials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)331-334
Number of pages4
JournalInvestigative Radiology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2000


  • Computed tomography
  • Cystoscopy
  • Segmentation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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