Venous thoracic outlet syndrome

Peiman Habibollahi, Dianbo Zhang, Marcin K. Kolber, Anil K. Pillai

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Venous thoracic outlet syndrome (vTOS) is a spectrum of disease caused by external compression of the subclavian vein as it passes through the costoclavicular space. Paget-Schroetter's Syndrome (PSS) or effort thrombosis is a subtype of vTOS where compression and microtrauma to subclavian vein from repetitive arm movements results in venous thrombosis. PSS or effort thrombosis mostly affects young otherwise healthy active individuals, and this further highlights the importance of this condition. Early diagnosis and aggressive early intervention aimed at complete resolution of acute symptoms and minimizing the risk of recurrence is ultimately important and increases the likelihood of the full restoration of limb function. Several noninvasive imaging techniques are currently available to confirm the initial diagnosis including Doppler ultrasound, contrast-enhanced computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Following diagnosis, multiple algorithms exist for the management of PSS and almost all require a multidisciplinary approach. Like any other condition involving the thrombosis of deep venous system, initial step in the management is anticoagulation. Catheter-directed therapies (CDT) have also a pivotal role as the initial treatment to resolve the acute thrombosis and establish venous patency. CDT combined with medical anticoagulation and surgical decompression are the components of most treatment algorithms for the management of patients suffering from PSS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1150-1158
Number of pages9
JournalCardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2021


  • Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT)
  • Deep venous thrombosis
  • Thoracic outlet syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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