Use of Lipid-, Blood Pressure-, and Glucose-Lowering Pharmacotherapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease

Adam J. Nelson, Emily C. O'Brien, Lisa A. Kaltenbach, Jennifer B. Green, Renato D. Lopes, Caryn G. Morse, Hussein R. Al-Khalidi, Vanita R. Aroda, Matthew A. Cavender, Tanya Gaynor, Julienne K. Kirk, Ildiko Lingvay, Melissa L. Magwire, Darren K. McGuire, Jonathan Pak, Rodica Pop-Busui, Caroline R. Richardson, Cagri Senyucel, Michelle D. Kelsey, Neha J. PagidipatiChristopher B. Granger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Importance: Based on contemporary estimates in the US, evidence-based therapies for cardiovascular risk reduction are generally underused among patients with type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Objective: To determine the use of evidence-based cardiovascular preventive therapies in a broad US population with diabetes and ASCVD. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter cohort study used health system-level aggregated data within the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network, including 12 health systems. Participants included patients with diabetes and established ASCVD (ie, coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral artery disease) between January 1 and December 31, 2018. Data were analyzed from September 2020 until January 2021. Exposures: One or more health care encounters in 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Patient characteristics by prescription of any of the following key evidence-based therapies: high-intensity statin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB) and sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2I) or glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA). Results: The overall cohort included 324706 patients, with a mean (SD) age of 68.1 (12.2) years and 144169 (44.4%) women and 180537 (55.6%) men. A total of 59124 patients (18.2%) were Black, and 41470 patients (12.8%) were Latinx. Among 205885 patients with specialized visit data from the prior year, 17971 patients (8.7%) visited an endocrinologist, 54330 patients (26.4%) visited a cardiologist, and 154078 patients (74.8%) visited a primary care physician. Overall, 190277 patients (58.6%) were prescribed a statin, but only 88426 patients (26.8%) were prescribed a high-intensity statin; 147762 patients (45.5%) were prescribed an ACEI or ARB, 12724 patients (3.9%) were prescribed a GLP-1RA, and 8989 patients (2.8%) were prescribed an SGLT2I. Overall, 14918 patients (4.6%) were prescribed all 3 classes of therapies, and 138173 patients (42.6%) were prescribed none. Patients who were prescribed a high-intensity statin were more likely to be men (59.9% [95% CI, 59.6%-60.3%] of patients vs 55.6% [95% CI, 55.4%-55.8%] of patients), have coronary atherosclerotic disease (79.9% [95% CI, 79.7%-80.2%] of patients vs 73.0% [95% CI, 72.8%-73.3%] of patients) and more likely to have seen a cardiologist (40.0% [95% CI, 39.6%-40.4%] of patients vs 26.4% [95% CI, 26.2%-26.6%] of patients). Conclusions and Relevance: In this large cohort of US patients with diabetes and ASCVD, fewer than 1 in 20 patients were prescribed all 3 evidence-based therapies, defined as a high-intensity statin, either an ACEI or ARB, and either an SGLT2I and/or a GLP-1RA. These findings suggest that multifaceted interventions are needed to overcome barriers to the implementation of evidence-based therapies and facilitate their optimal use..

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere2148030
JournalJAMA Network Open
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 17 2022
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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