Update on prognostic and predictive biomarkers of breast cancer

Yanjun Hou, Yan Peng, Zaibo Li

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Breast cancer represents a heterogeneous group of human cancer at both histological and molecular levels. Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are the most commonly used biomarkers in clinical practice for making treatment plans for breast cancer patients by oncologists. Recently, PD-L1 testing plays an important role for immunotherapy for triple-negative breast cancer. With the increased understanding of the molecular characterization of breast cancer and the emergence of novel targeted therapies, more potential biomarkers are needed for the development of more personalized treatments. In this review, we summarized several main prognostic and predictive biomarkers in breast cancer at genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic levels, including hormone receptors, HER2, Ki67, multiple gene expression assays, PD-L1 testing, mismatch repair deficiency/microsatellite instability, tumor mutational burden, PIK3CA, ESR1 andNTRK and briefly introduced the roles of digital imaging analysis in breast biomarker evaluation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)322-332
Number of pages11
JournalSeminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2022


  • Biomarkers
  • Breast cancer
  • Genes
  • PD-L1
  • Targeted therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine


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