Understanding pain after traumatic brain injury: Impact on community participation

Jeanne M. Hoffman, Kathleen F. Pagulayan, Nadya Zawaideh, Sureyya Dikmen, Nancy Temkin, Kathleen R. Bell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of pain 1 yr after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and identify predictors from the time of injury. Additionally, factors related to pain at 1 yr after injury were examined along with the impact of pain on community participation. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of 146 individuals enrolled during acute inpatient rehabilitation for TBI and community follow-up at 1 yr after injury. RESULTS: Higher reports of depressive symptoms during inpatient rehabilitation and at 1 yr after injury were significantly related to reports of pain at 1 yr when controlling for demographic and injury characteristics. Being female and nonwhite were also factors related to increased reports of pain. Pain and community participation were significantly related until depression was entered into the model. Depression is a significant factor in the relationship between pain and community participation. CONCLUSION: Whereas pain was frequently reported 1 yr after injury, injury-related factors were surprisingly unrelated. Further evaluation of the role that depression plays in the relationship between pain and community participation will be important to determine appropriate management of pain and depression and to optimize participation in individuals with TBI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)962-969
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 2007


  • Pain
  • Rehabilitation
  • Traumatic Brain Injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation


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