Tumor detection by virtual cystoscopy with color mapping of bladder wall thickness

Julia R. Fielding, Lennox Hoyte, Steven A. Okon, Andreas Schreyer, Jhemon Lee, Kelly H. Zou, Simon Warfield, Jerome P. Richie, Kevin R. Loughlin, Michael P. O'Leary, Christopher J. Doyle, Ron Kikinis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

60 Scopus citations


Purpose: We determine the value of color mapping of bladder wall thickness for detection of tumor as a component of virtual cystoscopy. Materials and Methods: A total of 31 subjects with hematuria and/or a history of bladder tumor underwent helical computerized tomography of the pelvis after distention of the bladder with air. Three-dimensional (D) models were constructed, and thickness of the wall was color mapped according to a fixed and validated mm. scale. Axial source images and 3-D models were reviewed and graded for the presence of wall thickening. A comparison was made with findings on conventional cystoscopy in 31 patients and pathological specimen in 13. Results: Compared with conventional cystoscopy, the analysis of axial image yielded a sensitivity of 0.80, specificity 0.90, positive predictive value 0.80 and negative predictive value 0.90 for the presence of tumor. Examination of color mapped 3-D renderings resulted in 0.83, 0.36, 0.42 and 0.71, respectively. Conclusions: Thin axial computerized tomography of the air distended bladder shows promise as a potential screening tool for bladder cancer. The low specificity of color mapped 3-D renderings makes the technique inappropriate for screening. It may valuable for guiding urologists to additional suspicious sites in a patient with a known tumor.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)559-562
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Urology
Issue number2 I
StatePublished - 2002


  • Bladder
  • Bladder neoplasms
  • Data display
  • Diagnosis
  • Tomography scanners x-ray computed

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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