Tracheostomy demographics and outcomes among pediatric patients ages 18 years or younger—United States 2012

Mark Sakai, Yann Fuu Kou, Gopi Shah, Romaine F Johnson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

48 Scopus citations


Objectives/Hypothesis: To estimate the number, demographics, and outcomes of pediatric patients who underwent tracheostomy in 2012 and to contrast those outcomes by age, race, and gender. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: The 2012 Kids Inpatient Database was queried to identify tracheostomy patients using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) procedural codes 311, 3121, and 3129. All patients ≤18 years of age at the time of admission were included and categorized as neonates (≤28 days), infants (>28 days ≤1 year), toddler (1 to 3 years), children (4 to 12 years), adolescents (13 to 17 years), and adults (=18 years). We recorded age, gender, race, insurance status, and zip code of primary residence. We used these variables to contrast the following outcomes: length of stay, total charges, complications of care, and mortality using multiple regression analysis. Results: An estimated 4,424 pediatric tracheostomies occurred during 2012. Fifty-one percent of the patients were ≤3 years old, and 62% were male. Forty-eight percentwere white followed by black (21%), Hispanic (20%), and Asian (3%). The median length of stay was 42 days, and the median total charges were $472,738. The complication rate was 29% and the mortality rate was 8.0%. The length of stay and total charges was predicted by age, with neonates having significantly longer hospitalizations. The complication rate was not associated with age, gender, or ethnicity. However, the mortality rate was associated with younger age. Conclusions: Pediatric tracheostomies are associated with significant hospital utilizations, complications, and mortality. Increased risk of mortality is observed among neonates and infants. Continued study of tracheostomy outcomes among these subsets of the pediatric population are warranted. Level of Evidence: 4. Laryngoscope, 129:1706–1711, 2019.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1706-1711
Number of pages6
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2019


  • Pediatric tracheostomy
  • complications
  • demographics
  • mortality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology


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