Towards virtual FLS: Development of a peg transfer simulator

Venkata S. Arikatla, Woojin Ahn, Ganesh Sankaranarayanan, Suvranu De

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Background: Peg transfer is one of five tasks in the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS), program. This paper reports the development and validation of a Virtual Basic Laparoscopic Skill Trainer-Peg Transfer (VBLaST-PT) simulator for automatic real-time scoring and objective quantification of performance. Methods: New techniques have been introduced in order to allow bi-manual manipulation of pegs and automatic scoring/evaluation while maintaining high quality of simulation. A preliminary face and construct validation study was performed with 22 subjects divided into two groups: experts (PGY 4-5, fellow and practicing surgeons) and novice (PGY 1-3). Results: Face validation shows high scores for all aspects of the simulation. Two-tailed Mann-Whitney U-test scores showed significant differences between the two groups on completion time (P=0.003), FLS score (P=0.002) and the VBLaST-PT; score (P=0.006). Conclusions: VBLaST-PT is a high quality virtual simulator that showed both face and construct validity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)344-355
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Construct validation
  • Face validation
  • Haptics
  • Minimally invasive surgery
  • Physics-based simulation
  • Surgical simulation
  • Virtual reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Biophysics
  • Computer Science Applications


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