Time to relapse questionnaire (TRQ): A measure of sudden relapse in substance dependence

Bryon Adinoff, Chelsea Talmadge, Mark J. Williams, Erica Schreffler, Patricia K. Jackley, Steven R. Krebaum

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Background: Relapse may occur suddenly, following a short period of craving, or after extended consideration. The time to relapse may reveal underlying mechanisms of relapse and have important implications for treatment. Objective: The Time to Relapse Questionnaire (TRQ), a self-administered questionnaire, was designed to assess the time from the initial thought of drug use to actual use. Methods: Psychometric properties of the TRQ were evaluated in two distinct populations (n = 183 and 194) with DSM-IV primary substance use disorders. Results: Factor analysis and item refinement led to a 9-item TRQ with a three-factor solution accounting for 63% of the total variance. Three discrete types of relapse style were identified: Sudden Relapse, Short Delay Relapse, and Long Delay Relapse. The TRQ demonstrated good construct validity and adequate internal consistency for the total (α = .61) and individual factor (α = .64-.75) scores. Measures to assess convergent validity of the TRQ suggest that Sudden Relapse may not reflect more generalized deficits of inhibitory control. Conclusions and Significance: The TRQ may provide a useful self-report measure to discriminate between addicted patients who relapse without forewarning compared to those with a period of delay. Clinical interventions may be targeted towards different relapse styles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)140-149
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2010


  • Impulsive behaviour
  • Questionnaires
  • Recurrence
  • Substance-related disorders

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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