The role of diet, exercise and smoking in dyslipidaemia in HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy

M. Shah, K. Tierney, B. Adams-Huet, A. Boonyavarakul, K. Jacob, C. Quittner, W. L. Dinges, D. Peterson, Abhimanyu Garg

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22 Scopus citations


Background: Lipodystrophy in HIV-infected (LDHIV) patients receiving protease inhibitors (PIs) is associated with dyslipidaemia. Whether lifestyle factors play a role in dyslipidaemia in LDHIV subjects on PIs is not well characterized. Methods: A total of 45 LDHIV male and six LDHIV female patients on PIs were recruited, and data were collected on smoking, exercise, diet (by 3-day food record), and fasting levels of serum lipids and lipoproteins. The relationships between lifestyle factors and metabolic variables were analysed in male patients by Spearman's correlation test and the significant relationships were further analysed by adjusting for age, PI duration, and waist circumference by Spearman's partial correlation test. Results: In men, mean (± standard deviation) serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) triglycerides (TG), and non-HDL-C were 212 ± 70, 35 ± 7.3, 325 ± 230 and 169 ± 44 mg/dL, respectively. Sixty-seven percent of the men exercised regularly and 31.1% smoked. The reported diet was high in cholesterol (390 ± 212 mg) and percentage energy from saturated (12.2 ± 3.3%) and trans (2.4 ± 1.2%) fats, and low in soluble fibre (6.9 ± 2.3 g) compared with recent dietary guidelines. Following adjustments for the confounding variables, percentage energy intake from total protein and animal protein was positively related to TC (r = 0.44, P < 0.01 and r = 0.37, P < 0.05, respectively), TG (r = 0.40, P < 0.01 and r = 0.46, P < 0.01, respectively) and non-HDL-C (r = 0.56, P < 0.001 and r = 0.49, P < 0.01, respectively), that from trans fat was positively related to TG (r = 0.34, P < 0.05), and soluble fibre was negatively related to non-HDL-C (r = - 0.41, P < 0.01). Moderate to heavy aerobic exercise tended to be associated with higher HDL-C (r = 0.30, P = 0.07) whereas smoking was not associated with any of the metabolic variables. Conclusions: Increased intake of total protein, animal protein and trans fat, and reduced soluble fibre consumption contribute to dyslipidaemia in LDHIV subjects on PIs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)291-298
Number of pages8
JournalHIV Medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2005


  • Diet
  • Dyslipidaemia
  • Exercise
  • HIV
  • Lipodystrophy
  • Smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Policy
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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