The Pediatric Heart Failure Workforce: An International, Multicenter Survey

Scott R. Auerbach, Melanie D. Everitt, Ryan J. Butts, David N. Rosenthal, Yuk M. Law

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Our objective was to understand the scope of pediatric heart failure (HF) and the current staffing environment of HF programs. An online survey was distributed to members of the Pediatric Heart Transplant Study and the Pediatric Council of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. All participants received the primary 23-question survey. Additionally, HF program directors received a 32-question supplemental survey. Of 235 invitations sent, there were 69 (29%) primary surveys and 34 program director surveys completed (24 U.S. programs, 9 outside non-U.S., and one non-specified location). A formal HF program was reported by 88% of directors. There were 150 [IQR 50–200] outpatients/institution and 40% [25–50] of patients had congenital heart disease. Inpatient HF census was 3 [2–4] patients. Most programs (70%) used a consulting service model to provide HF specialty care, while only 10 (30%) utilized an inpatient HF service. Inpatient HF service programs had a higher daily inpatient census versus consult service model programs (4 [3–7] vs. 2 [1–4], respectively; p = 0.022) and had a higher number of full-time equivalents dedicated to HF (5.5 [2–7] vs. 2.5 [1–4], respectively; p = 0.024). Only 47% of programs report a general fellowship rotation devoted to HF. Advanced practice providers (APP) were utilized in 15 programs, nurse coordinators in 2, and both in 3. Most HF programs are formalized, utilize APP, and have inadequate HF staffing to utilize a separate inpatient HF service. Exposure of general pediatric cardiology fellows to HF care is variable between institutions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)307-314
Number of pages8
JournalPediatric Cardiology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2018


  • Congenital heart disease
  • Heart failure
  • Pediatrics
  • Survey

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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