The impact of ST-segment elevation on the prognosis of patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy

Iosif Xenogiannis, Evangelia Vemmou, Ilias Nikolakopoulos, Meagan E. Nowariak, Christian W. Schmidt, Emmanouil S. Brilakis, Scott W. Sharkey

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Introduction: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) has a variety of electrocardiographic expressions such as ST-segment elevation (STE), T-wave inversion, QTc-prolongation, left bundle branch block, presence of anterior Q waves and rarely ST-segment depression. In contrast to acute myocardial infarction, the impact of STE on the initial electrocardiogram (EKG), on TC outcomes, remains largely unknown. Objective: To evaluate the significance of STE on the index EKG of patients with takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) in terms of prognosis. Methods: We examined retrospectively the data of 436 patients diagnosed with TC who were admitted to the Minneapolis Heart Institute between August 2001 and November 2019. Results: Of 436 patients, 145 (33%) presented with STE on the index EKG. Typical apical ballooning pattern was encountered more frequently in the STE group (66% vs 51%; p = 0.005), on the contrary to the mid-ventricular ballooning which was more common in the non-STE group (31% vs 45%; p = 0.005) while initial left ventricular ejection fraction was similar between the two groups (31% ± 9 vs 33% ± 11; p = 0.163). The composite endpoint of TC-related complications, defined as left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO), left ventricular (LV) thrombus, hemodynamic instability requiring mechanical or intravenous vasopressor support, cardiac arrest or in-hospital death, was higher for the STE group (37% vs 24%; p = 0.006). Left ventricular outflow obstruction (LVOTO) was more frequent in patients with STE (13% vs 3%; p < 0.001) while there was a trend toward higher rates of LV thrombus formation in the same group (5% vs 1%; p = 0.057). On multivariable analysis, STE remained an independent predictor of TC-related complications. In-hospital mortality (2.8% vs 3.4%; p = 1.000) and five-year mortality were similar between the two groups (23% vs 20%; p = 0.612). Conclusion: Patients with TC presenting with STE on the initial EKG, were more likely to develop disease related complications, thus, careful in-hospital monitoring including imaging evaluation for LVOTO and LV thrombus may be warranted for these patients. Nevertheless, both groups had similar in-hospital and five-year mortality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Electrocardiology
StateAccepted/In press - 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Complications
  • ST-segment elevation
  • Takotsubo cardiomyopathy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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