Patients with diabetes display heightened blood pressure response to exercise, but the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. There is no direct evidence that insulin resistance (hyperinsulinemia or hyperglycemia) impacts neural cardiovascular control during exercise. We propose a novel paradigm in which hyperinsulinemia or hyperglycemia significantly influences neural regulatory pathways controlling the circulation during exercise in diabetes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)157-167
Number of pages11
JournalExercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2021


  • central command
  • diabetes
  • exercise blood pressure
  • exercise pressor reflex
  • hyperglycemia
  • insulin resistance
  • sympathetic nerve activity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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