The expanding universe of PARP1-mediated molecular and therapeutic mechanisms

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48 Scopus citations


ADP-ribosylation (ADPRylation) is a post-translational modification of proteins catalyzed by ADP-ribosyl transferase (ART) enzymes, including nuclear PARPs (e.g., PARP1 and PARP2). Historically, studies of ADPRylation and PARPs have focused on DNA damage responses in cancers, but more recent studies elucidate diverse roles in a broader array of biological processes. Here, we summarize the expanding array of molecular mechanisms underlying the biological functions of nuclear PARPs with a focus on PARP1, the founding member of the family. This includes roles in DNA repair, chromatin regulation, gene expression, ribosome biogenesis, and RNA biology. We also present new concepts in PARP1-dependent regulation, including PAR-dependent post-translational modifications, “ADPR spray,” and PAR-mediated biomolecular condensate formation. Moreover, we review advances in the therapeutic mechanisms of PARP inhibitors (PARPi) as well as the progress on the mechanisms of PARPi resistance. Collectively, the recent progress in the field has yielded new insights into the expanding universe of PARP1-mediated molecular and therapeutic mechanisms in a variety of biological processes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2315-2334
Number of pages20
JournalMolecular cell
Issue number12
StatePublished - Jun 16 2022


  • ADP-ribosylation
  • DNA damage response
  • DNA replication
  • PARP
  • PARP inhibitor
  • PARPi
  • PTM
  • RNA biology
  • biomolecular condensate
  • chromatin
  • gene regulation
  • histone
  • poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase
  • post-translational modification
  • ribosome biogenesis
  • therapeutic resistance
  • therapeutics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology


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