The effect of fresh gas flow and anesthetic technique on the ability to control acute hemodynamic responses during surgery

Michail N. Avramov, James D. Griffin, Paul F. White

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


We evaluated the effect of the fresh gas flow (FGF) rate and the anesthetic technique on the ability to control the acute hyperdynamic response to a specific surgical stimulus during surgery in 90 consenting ASA physical status I-III patients undergoing lower abdominal procedures. After the administration of midazolam 2 mg IV, anesthesia was induced in all patients with propofol 1.5 mg/kg IV and fentanyl 1 μg/kg IV and was initially maintained with desflurane or isoflurane, 0.7 minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration, at total FGF rates of either 1 or 3 L/min. In response to the surgical stimulation of skin incision and retropubic dissection, an increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) >20% above the preincision baseline MAP value provoked a stepwise increase in the inspired concentration of the volatile anesthetic or the IV administration of a variable-rate infusion of esmolol. At both FGF rates, the acute hemodynamic response to surgical stimulation was more efficiently treated by increasing the inspired concentration of desflurane than isoflurane. At 1 L/min, the average time to control the increase in MAP was significantly shorter with desflurane (17 ± 12 min) compared with isoflurane (29 ± 16 min), with 60% of the patients in the isoflurane group requiring rescue therapy. When an esmolol infusion was used to control the increase in MAP, supplementation with fentanyl was required in 40% and 53% of patients anesthetized with desflurane and isoflurane, respectively. In conclusion, desflurane provided more rapid and reliable control of acute hemodynamic responses to surgical stimulation than isoflurane or esmolol when the volatile anesthetics were administered at low FGF rates. Implications: At low fresh gas flow rates (1 L/min), desflurane more successfully and rapidly controlled the acute hemodynamic responses to painful surgical stimuli than isoflurane.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)666-670
Number of pages5
JournalAnesthesia and analgesia
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 1 1998

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine


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