The diagnosis and treatment of urethral recurrence after radical cystectomy

Jennifer B. Sherwood, Arthur I Sagalowsky

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Objective: To illustrate the problem of urethral recurrence of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) after radical cystectomy, and define surveillance and treatment algorithms. Methods: There are 6 unique cases of urethral tumor recurrence presented, and current relevant literature is reviewed. Three risk groups are defined based on the likelihood of urethral recurrence. Surveillance and treatment options are delineated. Results: Although the incidence of recurrent tumor in the urethra is low, the prevalence is increasing because of improvements in bladder cancer survival and the fact that the urethra is retained more often for orthotopic urinary diversion. Patients can be categorized as low, intermediate, and high risk based on the pathologic finding of degree of prostatic involvement by the initial tumor. Conclusion: Based on limited available literature, it appears that surveillance strategies range from observation alone to more invasive monitoring that includes urethral wash cytology and urethroscopy. Treatment options include local resection, intraurethral agents, and complete urethrectomy. A surveillance algorithm based on risk for recurrence and a treatment algorithm based on histopathologic risk factors of the recurrent tumor are proposed. This problem will assume increasing importance in the future.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)356-361
Number of pages6
JournalUrologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations
Issue number4 SPEC. ISS.
StatePublished - 2006


  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Urethral tumor recurrence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Urology


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