The demonstration of αKlotho deficiency in human chronic kidney disease with a novel synthetic antibody

Sarah L. Barker, Johanne Pastor, Danielle Carranza, Henry Quiones, Carolyn Griffith, Regina Goetz, Moosa Mohammadi, Jianfeng Ye, Jianning Zhang, Ming C Hu, Makoto Kuro-o, Orson W Moe, Sachdev S. Sidhu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

114 Scopus citations


Background αKlotho is the prototypic member of the Klotho family and is most highly expressed in the kidney. αKlotho has pleiotropic biologic effects, and in the kidney, its actions include regulation of ion transport, cytoprotection, anti-oxidation and anti-fibrosis. In rodent models of chronic kidney disease (CKD), αKlotho deficiency has been shown to be an early biomarker as well as a pathogenic factor. The database for αKlotho in human CKD remains controversial even after years of study. Methods We used a synthetic antibody library to identify a high-affinity human antigen-binding fragment that recognizes human, rat and mouse αKlotho primarily in its native, rather than denatured, form. Results Using an immunoprecipitation-immunoblot (IP-IB) assay, we measured both serum and urinary levels of full-length soluble αKlotho in humans and established that human CKD is associated with αKlotho deficiency in serum and urine. αKlotho levels were detectably lower in early CKD preceding disturbances in other parameters of mineral metabolism and progressively declined with CKD stages. We also found that exogenously added αKlotho is inherently unstable in the CKD milieu suggesting that decreased production may not be the sole reason for αKlotho deficiency. Conclusion Synthetic antibody libraries harbor tremendous potential for a variety of biomedical and clinical applications. Using such a reagent, we furnish data in support of αKlotho deficiency in human CKD, and we set the foundation for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic applications of anti-αKlotho antibodies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)223-233
Number of pages11
JournalNephrology Dialysis Transplantation
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2015


  • assay
  • chronic kidney disease
  • klotho
  • synthetic antibodies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology
  • Transplantation


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