The application of confocal microscopy to the study of living systems

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9 Scopus citations


A unique tandem confocal microscope (TSCM) has been developed that permits noninvasive imaging in vivo of the eye and many other organ systems in real time in situ. The application to the study of microphysiological processes in vivo is described and illustrated for the cornea, kidney, liver, epididymis, muscle, and adipose tissue. Novel applications are shown for studying the healing of wounds in four dimensions (x, y, z, t) in single animals over time at the cellular level. Application to clinical diagnostic use in humans is also demonstrated. When combined with Laser Scanning Confocal fluorescence microscopy, the TSCM offers a unique new imaging paradigm for experimental biology and medicine with great potential for use in neuroscience and many other disciplines.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)477-482
Number of pages6
JournalNeuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1993


  • Confocal microscopy
  • Eye imaging
  • Ivo
  • Non-invasive imaging
  • Ophthalmology imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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