Temperature quantitation and mapping of frozen tissue

Kim Butts, Jason Sinclair, Bruce L. Daniel, Janaka Wansapura, John M. Pauly

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


A method was developed for quantitating the temperature within frozen tissue with the magnetic resonance (MR) parameter R2*. The pulse sequence uses half-pulse excitation and a short spiral readout to achieve echo times as short as 0.2 msec. Fiber-optic temperature sensors were inserted into bovine liver tissue. The tissue was frozen at one end while being held warm at the other end. Once steady state was reached, the parameter R2* was measured. A linear dependence of R2* on temperature was demonstrated. R2* is independent of freeze number and of the orientation of the temperature gradient with respect to the main magnetic field. Feasibility in a canine prostate during cryosurgery is demonstrated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)99-104
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2001
Externally publishedYes


  • Cryosurgery
  • Frozen tissue
  • Image-guided therapy
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • R2*

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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