Synthesis of fluorenes via the palladium-catalyzed 5-exo-dig annulation of o-alkynylbiaryls

Natalia Chernyak, Vladimir Gevorgyan

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74 Scopus citations


The direct palladium-catalyzed intramolecular hydro arylation of o-alkynylbiaryls proceeded in a highly stereoselective manner producing fluorenes 2, the products of 5-exo-dig cyclization, in excellent yields. The cascade intermolecular arylation, incorporated in this transformation, allowed for the efficient synthesis of fully substituted fluorenes 12. These cyclizations proceed more rapidly with electron-deficient benzene rings which, in combination with a substantial isotope effect observed, strongly supports a C-H activation mechanism for the key annulation step.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1101-1114
Number of pages14
JournalAdvanced Synthesis and Catalysis
Issue number7-8
StatePublished - May 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Alkynes
  • Annulations
  • Arylation
  • C-H activation
  • Palladium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Organic Chemistry


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