Surgeon workload and motion efficiency with robot and human laparoscopic camera control

G. V. Kondraske, E. C. Hamilton, D. J. Scott, C. A. Fischer, S. T. Tesfay, R. Taneja, R. J. Brown, D. B. Jones

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Background: Surgeons are now being assisted by robotic systems in a wide range of laparoscopic procedures. Some reports have suggested that robot-assisted camera control (RACC) may be superior to a human driver in terms of quality of view and directional precision, as well as long-term cost savings. Therefore, we setout to investigate the impact of RACC of surgeon motion efficiency. Methods: Twenty pigs were randomized to undergo a standardized laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication with either a human or RACC system, the AESOP 2000. All procedures were performed by the same surgical fellow. Time was recorded for dissection and suture phases. Inertial motion sensors were used to monitor both the surgeon's hands and the camera. Digitized data were analyzed to produce summary measures related to overall motion. Results: The operative times were slightly longer with RACC (mean 80.2 ± 20.6 vs 73.1 = 15.4 min, not significant). With regard to operative times and surgeon motion measures, the only statistically significant differences were for setup and breakdown times, which contributed < 15% to the total time for the procedure. Conclusion: In terms of impact on surgeon motion efficiency and operative time under normal surgical conditions, RACC is essentially the same as an expert human driver. However, careful planning and structuring of the surgical suite may yield some small gains in operative time.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1523-1527
Number of pages5
JournalSurgical Endoscopy and Other Interventional Techniques
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1 2002


  • Camera control
  • Efficiency
  • Laparoscopy
  • Motion
  • Performance
  • Robot

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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