1H spectroscopy without solvent suppression: Characterization of signal modulations at short echo times

David B. Clayton, Mark A. Elliott, John S. Leigh, Robert E. Lenkinski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

49 Scopus citations


While most proton (1H) spectra acquired in vivo utilize selective suppression of the solvent signal for more sensitive detection of signals from the dilute metabolites, recent reports have demonstrated the feasibility and advantages of collecting in vivo data without solvent attenuation. When these acquisitions are performed at short echo times, the presence of frequency modulations of the water resonance may become an obstacle to the identification and quantitation of metabolite resonances. The present report addresses the characteristics, origin, and elimination of these sidebands. Sideband amplitudes were measured as a function of delay time between gradient pulse and data collection, as a function of gradient pulse amplitude, and as a function of spatial location of the sample for each of the three orthogonal gradient sets. Acoustic acquisitions were performed to demonstrate the correlation between mechanical vibration resonances and the frequencies of MR sidebands. A mathematical framework is developed and compared with the experimental results. This derivation is based on the theory that these frequency modulations are induced by magnetic field fluctuations generated by the transient oscillations of gradient coils.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)203-209
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2001


  • Acoustic vibration
  • Gradient coil
  • Sideband
  • Unsuppressed

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Biochemistry
  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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