Stop the Bleed: Effective Training in Need of Improvement

Cassandra V. Villegas, Aakanksha Gupta, Susan Liu, Jeffrey Curren, Jay Rosenberg, Philip S. Barie, Robert J. Winchell, Mayur Narayan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background: The “Stop the Bleed” (StB) campaign aims to educate laypersons on performing bleeding control techniques in any setting that requires hemorrhage control, such as motor vehicle crashes or mass casualty incidents. Participants undergo a didactic and practical session, the latter incorporating a mannequin. We hypothesized that participants would increase content knowledge after StB participation and that the training could be improved by a more life-like bleeding modification of the mannequin. Materials and methods: From July 2017 to January 2018, hospital and community members from a major metropolitan area participated in StB training. Participants provided demographic data regarding prior emergency training and were asked pre- and post-test questions (five-point Likert scale) regarding their response to hemorrhage. Individuals also evaluated the mannequin on bleeding simulation. Scores were reported as means with standard deviation or medians with interquartile ranges (IQRs) with subset analysis stratified by experience. Results: Of 402 participants, 310 provided complete data. On the composite, pre-test self-assessment, participants had a median score of 24 of 30 points (IQR 16-30). Post-testing demonstrated a statistically significant increase with a median score of 29 (IQR 25-30, P < 0.05). Subset analysis by prior emergency training (n = 102) demonstrated that both those with prior emergency training and those with no prior emergency training had significant improvement. On evaluation of the mannequin, participants reported that a more realistic model would increase their confidence in technique. Both subgroups reported that training would be enhanced if the mannequins were more realistic. Conclusions: StB is an effective education program. Those without prior experience or training in hemorrhage cessation demonstrated the most improvement. Regardless of background, participants reported overwhelmingly that the training would be more effective if it were more realistic. Future work to design and develop cost-effective mannequins demonstrating pulsatile blood flow and cessation of hemorrhage could enable learners to actually “Stop the Bleed”.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)627-631
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Surgical Research
StatePublished - Nov 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Education
  • Hemorrhage control
  • Mannequin
  • Simulation
  • Stop the bleed
  • Tourniquet

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


Dive into the research topics of 'Stop the Bleed: Effective Training in Need of Improvement'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this