Stability and Toxicity of Contrast Agents

Erño Brücher, Gyula Tircsó, Zsolt Baranyai, Zoltán Kovács, A. Dean Sherry

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

60 Scopus citations


The chapter on stability and toxicity of contrast agents gives an update of thermodynamic and kinetic constants for new metal ion-ligand complexes that are explored as a potential MRI contrast agents. It also provides a brief overview of the computer programs used for the calculation of the equilibrium constants (protonation and stability constants). Next, the chapter talks about stability of metal-ligand complexes, including complexes of open chain ligands, complexes of tripodal and 6-amino-6-methylperhydro-1,4-diazepine tetraacetic acid (AAZTA) ligands, and complexes of macrocyclic ligands. It also includes ternary complexes formed between the Ln(L) complexes and various bio-ligands, Mn 2+-based contrast agents. Then, it explains formation kinetics and dissociation of M(L) complexes such as DOTA complexes and DOTA-tetraamides complexes. Finally, the chapter discusses biodistribution and in vivo toxicity of Gd3+-based MRI contrast agents.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationThe Chemistry of Contrast Agents in Medical Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Subtitle of host publicationSecond Edition
PublisherJohn Wiley and Sons
Number of pages52
ISBN (Print)9781119991762
StatePublished - Feb 18 2013


  • Equilibrium constants
  • Gadolinium (3+)
  • Kinetic inertness
  • MRI contrast agents
  • Metal-ligand complexes
  • Thermodynamic stability
  • in vivo toxicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)


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