Somatic, Anxiety, and Depressive (SAD) Symptoms in Young Adult Latinx Immigrants: Prevalence and Predictors

Carrie Leathers, Kurt Kroenke, Mindy Flanagan, Savina Diaz, Rachel Gruber, Gloria Tran, Daniel Driver

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Certain immigration factors may increase somatic, anxiety, and depressive (SAD) symptoms in Latinx immigrants. Our study examined prevalence of SAD symptoms in Latinx immigrants 18–29 presenting to primary care with correlates of acculturation, immigration, and legal status. SAD symptoms were measured using the PHQ-14, GAD-7 and PHQ-8. Moderate somatization (37%), anxiety (20%), and depression (25%) were common. Multivariable analysis found five immigration factors predicted a higher composite SAD score and the presence of each additional factor increased likelihood of a SAD score ≥ 20 (OR 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.5). SAD scores increased in a dose–response fashion (8.3, 10.5, 14.8, 17.1, 21.7, 29.3) with the added presence of each factor. Elevated SAD scores were not associated with gender, marital status, education, income, country of origin, or acculturation. Screening with our five factor immigration distress index may help identify patients at risk for higher SAD scores during a primary care visit.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)956-964
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Immigration
  • Latinx
  • Somatization
  • Undocumented

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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