Smart glasses as a surgical pathology grossing tool

Ozlem Kulak, Anastasia Drobysheva, Neda Wick, Simone Arvisais-Anhalt, Sharon Koorse Germans, Charles F. Timmons, Jason Y. Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Context.—Smart glasses are a wearable technology that enable hands-free data acquisition and entry. Objective.—To develop a surgical pathology grossing application on a smart glass platform. Design.—An existing logistics software for the Google Glass Enterprise smart glass platform was used to create surgical pathology grossing protocols. The 2 grossing protocols were developed to simulate grossing a complex (heart) and a simple (kidney) specimen. For both protocols, users were visually prompted by the smart glass device to perform each task, record measurements, or document the field of view. In addition to measuring the total time of the protocol performance, each substep within the protocol was automatically recorded. Subsequently, a report was generated that contained the dictation, images, voice recordings, and the timing of each step. The application was tested by 3 users using the 2 grossing protocols. The users were tracked across 3 grossing procedures for each protocol. Results.—For the complex specimen grossing the average time across repeated procedures was not significantly different between users (P . .99). However, when grossing times of the complex specimen were compared for repeated performances of the same user, a significant reduction in grossing times was observed with each repetition (P ¼ .002). For the simple specimen, the average grossing time across multiple attempts was different among users (P ¼ .03); however, no improvement in grossing time was observed with repeated performance (P ¼ .499). Conclusions.—Augmented reality based grossing applications can provide automated data collection to track the changes in grossing performance over time. (Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2021;145:457–460; doi: 10.5858/ arpa.2020-0090-OA)

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)457-460
Number of pages4
JournalArchives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Medical Laboratory Technology


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