Small vertebrates from Khasm El-Raqaba, late Middle Miocene, Eastern Desert, Egypt

Gregg F. Gunnell, Alisa J. Winkler, Ellen R. Miller, Jason J. Head, Ahmed N. El-Barkooky, Mohamed Abdel Gawad, William J. Sanders, Philip D. Gingerich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Khasm El-Raqaba (KER) (28.451°N, 31.834°E) is a large commercial limestone quarry in Egypt's Eastern Desert. The site is best known for cetacean fossils recovered from middle Eocene deposits, but remains of some geologically younger, small fossil vertebrates representing snakes, rodents and bats, have been recovered from karst fissure-fill deposits intrusive into the Eocene limestones. Comparisons with extant and extinct material reveal that the KER snakes represent two different colubrines, the rodents are referable to the ctenodactylid Africanomys, and the bats represent a new species of Hipposideros (Pseudorhinolophus). Together, faunal correlation and geological evidence are in broad agreement with a late Middle Miocene age for this KER fauna, and a palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of mixed subtropical and more arid microhabitats.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)159-171
Number of pages13
JournalHistorical Biology
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Feb 17 2016


  • Neogene
  • North Africa
  • bats
  • limestone
  • rodents
  • snakes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)


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